What is Geology?

“Geology” is a Greek word “geo” means earth and “logos” means science. Geology is the scientific study of the Earth, the materials (which it is made), the structure of those materials, and the process following upon them. The importance of geology is the investigation of how Earth’s materials, structures, process, and life forms have changed over time.

It is the study of nature, structure, and history of the planet. Geology is a major part of our planet and meteorological sciences.

The subject of geology comprises all perspectives including the composition, structure, physical properties, and history of a planets'( like Earth’s) inter-related components and the processes that are shaping the features on the surface.

Geologists are the scientists who study the origin, occurrence, distribution, and utilities of all materials(metallic, non-metallic, inorganic, etc), minerals, rocks, sediments, soils, water, oil, and all other inorganic natural resources of the planet.

It is a very vast subject covering a wide spectrum of scientific principles and holding a hundred and fifty plus scientific branches.

Geological science

Geology is a scientific study of earth history (approximately 4.6 billion years) that uses the rock record to disentangle that history. geological science can also examine solid features of other planets, for example, Mars or the Moon.

Who is the father of geology?

The Scottish naturalist James Hutton (1726-1797) is known as the father of geology.

He attempts to formulate geological principles based on observations of rocks. A key site was Siccar Point, a sea cliff east of Edinburgh where horizontal layers of red sandstone rest on near-vertical folded layers of gray slate and sandstone.

Hutton determined that the gray rocks had been deposited horizontally, uplifted, folded, tilted, eroded, and again covered by the ocean, from which the overlying sandstone accumulated. He understands that these processes must have taken a very long time. The boundary between the two rock sequences is called an unconformity.

Why is geology is so important?

We learn in geology all about the earth and how its work and its history(4.6 billion years approximately)

we studied in geology the most important societal problems for example energy resources, climate change, and natural hazards such as landslides, volcanoes, earthquakes, and floods.

geologists study the land whether it is stable for the proposed project.

they help us with hazards and risks associate with hazards like rockfall, landslides, and earthquakes.

geology also help us to understand climate change, the benefit of studying geology to help us predict future scenario.

geological engineers help our earth’s inner and outer surface to evaluate potential mining and infrastructure construction sites.

What are the types of geology?

Geology is the science which deals with earth structures, rocks which are composed of, and the process by which they change over time. Geology is a very vast subject. It has several branches. People divided it into two broad areas, physical geology, and historical geology..

Physical geology

The subject of Physical geology deals with the study of Earth’s materials, such as minerals and rocks, as well as the processes that are operating on and within the Earth and on its surface.

Historical geology

The subject of Historical geology focuses on the origin and evolution of life on the Earth, its continents, oceans, atmosphere, and the life of all ecosystems.

Historical geology is more than just concentrating on past events in geological history. It is the study of the persistent changes that have happened and evolved continuously during the past 4.6 billion years on the planet.

Branches of Geology-How many branches of geology are there?

What jobs are there in geology?

Let’s say you really want to be a professional geologist. Careers in geology generally fall into the following categories:

Corporate (oil, mining, environmental, engineering)
Nonprofit (environmental, planning, educational)
Government (local and regional planning, state and federal environmental regulation and protection (D.E.P. and E.P.A.), geological engineering (PennDOT), state geological surveys, U.S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, state parks, E.P.A.)
Secondary education (Earth sciences)
Academic (community college, college, and university)
There are many careers available to geologists in fields

Jobs directly related to your degree

Engineering geologist

Engineering geologists are responsible for identifying the geological factors that could affect construction projects. They analyse ground materials to assess their risk factors and advise on the best procedures for developments and the suitability of construction materials.


The national average salary for a Engineering Geologist is $64,842 in United States.


Geochemists use their expert knowledge of geology and chemistry to provide vital assistance in the exploration of natural resources, such as oil, natural gas and minerals. These scientists can also use their expertise to reduce pollutants and increase water quality.


Entry-level geochemists tend to earn between £19,500 and £29,000 per annum, while senior professionals can earn up to £50,000 and beyond.


Geophysics is the study of the earth’s crust and physical structure, such as continental plates and underground geological formations. Seismology is the study of earthquakes, their formation, and the factors causing tremors and seismic movements.


Competitors entering this calling with a college degree can hope to win around £20,000 to £25,000 per annum, while individuals with pertinent postgraduate capabilities (MSc or Ph.D.) may have somewhat higher beginning compensations, extending somewhere in the range of £25,000 and £30,000.

Senior experts with beyond what five years of experience can even gain up to £65,000 per year.

Individuals utilized by business organizations will in general get more significant compensations than representatives of public area associations and scholarly establishments.


A geoscientist is a core member of professional teams engaged in the exploration, discovery, exploration and development of natural resources such as gas, oil and water.


Student geoscientists gain yearly compensations somewhere in the range of £22,000 and £35,000. Those with five to ten years of experience win somewhere in the range of £35,000 and £75,000, and geoscientists in senior administration jobs acquire somewhere in the range of £55,000 and £130,000.

Geoscientists who work in far off, seaward and unfavorable conditions get more significant compensations than those situated in workplaces and labs.

Private area organizations offer better compensation bundles, and the most elevated level of pay rates are given by oil and gas organizations.

Geotechnical engineer

Geotechnical engineers examine and study soil to assess its appropriateness for establishments. They explore and survey building locales, direct lab tests, make plans for structures, administer development, and compose and present reports. They deal with so many undertakings as planning burrows, streets, holding dividers, and earth dams, just as assisting with making procedures for the tidy up and the executives of sullied locales.


The normal compensation for a geo-specialized designer fluctuates as you become more experienced.

Recently prepared geo-specialized architects can procure £20,000 – £25,000

Prepared geo-specialized architects with some experience can procure £25,000 – £32,000

Senior, contracted, or ace geo-specialized architects can acquire £32,000 – £60,000*.


Hydrogeologists are master researchers who have some expertise in the investigation of groundwater. These sharp individuals screen and investigate the development, dispersion, and nature of water underneath the world’s surface trying to keep up, monitor, and deal with these unimaginably important assets.


Entry-level hydrogeologists tend to earn between £19,000 and £24,000 per annum, while experienced hydrogeologists can earn anywhere between £28,000 and £47,000.

Some senior hydrogeologists with managerial responsibilities can earn up to £65,000 a year.


As a mudlogger, you’ll monitor and record drilling activity, providing information to the drilling team about a well’s status during the extraction of oil or gas. The data you collect and monitor, the ‘mud log’, influences important decisions about the efficiency and placement of well sites.


Mudloggers can earn a decent wage. Indeed, once they are fully trained, they can earn between £40,000 and £60,000 per annum. If you secure a job with a major oil company, you will understandably earn more money.

The nature of the mudlogging profession means that your outgoings will also be pretty minimal. Since you will tend to work offshore on oil rigs, your food, travel, and accommodation expenses will usually be paid for by your employer.

Wellsite geologist

Wellsite geologists supervise every stage of the drilling process for extracting gas and oil. They study and analyze rocks from the oil and gas wells in order to direct the drilling, and identify the rock formation into which they are drilling. They use specialized tests, rock-cutting data, wireline data, core samples, and other measures to do this, analyzing and evaluating this to inform the drilling process.


Beginning compensations are extremely clean in fact, running from around £28,000 to £40,000.

At the senior level, this compensation can reach as high as £120,000+. Wellsite geologists will in general be paid constantly and they are just utilized insofar as penetrating movement proceeds.

New specialist wellsite geologists may be paid in the range of £350 and £450, and more experienced geologists are taking around £750 to £1,000 per day. there is little professional stability, and a wellsite geologist may just work 150 days per year or even less.

Jobs where your degree would be useful

  • Drilling engineer
  • Environmental consultant
  • Environmental engineer
  • Minerals survey
  • Quarry manager
  • Sustainability consultant

The job outlooks for geologists depend upon their geologic specialty. The prospects for those in the petroleum or metallic minerals fields vary with the price of the commodity. If gold or gas prices go up, exploration and development jobs increase; conversely, if prices drop, the jobs dry up. The job outlooks for those in the environmental field (engineering geology, surface processes, hydrogeology, etc…) are growing quickly. The best advice for students today, as always, is to choose your major or field of interest according to your likes and dislikes: if you choose according to salary expectations or job prospects, you may find yourself spending 1/3 of your life doing something you hate; if you choose a field you enjoy, however, you are more likely to excel in your career

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