The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that describes transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. Each rock type is altered when it is forced out of its equilibrium conditions.
Transition to igneous rock
When rock pushes deep into the earth’s surface. it melts into magma .when magma moves up and cools. It solidifies and forms igneous rock. if it cools inside the earth’s surface it called intrusive or plutonic rock. magma cools very slowly within the earth’s surface and forms coarse-grained textures such as granite. If magma(which is called lava when it reaches the surface) erupts on the surface it forms rocks called extrusive or volcanic rocks.it cools very rapidly so it is fine-grained and sometimes it cools very rapidly that no crystal form results in natural glass such as obsidian. The most common rock formed is basalt. all three types of rocks melt and form igneous rocks.
Transition to a metamorphic rock
When the rock is under high temperature and pressures it changes its physical or chemical composition and forms metamorphic rock..3 factors cause a change in temperature and pressure: Weight of the overlying layer of sediment. Stress due to plates colliding. Stress due to plates sliding past each other.
When rock contact with igneous intrusion, it heats up surrounding rocks, and change its composition this metamorphism is called contact metamorphism. this metamorphism heats up and recrystallizes and alters the rocks. regional metamorphism effect on large areas associated with mountain building. these rocks commonly show bands of mineralogy and color. Any rock can be modified by the process of metamorphism.
Transition to sedimentary rock
Weathering and erosion of exposed rock break into smaller particles and transport it away from parent rock. These fragment material accumulate in the basin and is buried by additional material. sedimentary rocks form by the lithification of these buried materials. If the sediment is buried deeply, it becomes compacted and cemented, forming clastic sedimentary rock. Biologic sedimentary rocks form when large numbers of living things die. Chert is an example of this type of rock.