What is Lanslide?

Landslide is defined as the downward movement of rocks, debris, or earth material along the slope. Landslide is a type of “mass wasting” such as rockfalls, mudflows, deep-seated slope failure, and debris flows. When shear and gravitational stress exceed the shear strength of the material that forms slope, a landslide occurs. Change in slope stability by …

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Stratigraphy of Pakistan

S.No Name Type Locality Lithology Age 1. Nagar Parkar Granite Not Designed Granite, grey, composed of orthoclase Late Precambrian 2. Kirana Group Not Designed Slate Late Precambrian 3. Salt Range Formation Khewra gorge, eastern Salt Range, Punjab Gypsum beds, dolomite, clay, greenish & low grade oil shale Tertiary microfossils reported 4. Hazara Formation Not designed …

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Geological Time Scale

The geological time scale is a system of chronological measurement that relates stratigraphy to time and is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred throughout Earth’s history. Earth was created around 4.6 billion years ago. Since then there have been supercontinents, dinosaurs, shark …

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Rock cycle

The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that describes transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. Each rock type is altered when it is forced out of its equilibrium conditions. Transition to igneous rock When rock pushes deep into the earth’s surface. it melts into magma .when magma moves up and cools. …

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Weathering and Erosion

Weathering is a process of weakening and dissolving rock minerals through physical, chemical, or biological agents. Types of weathering There are 3 main types of weathering Mechanical weathering Chemical weathering Biological weathering Mechanical weathering Mechanical weathering is a physical change in the size of grain without chemical changing in their composition. Exfoliation or onion skin …

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Igneous rocks

The earth’s crust made up of different types of rocks. The rocks that make up the maximum volume of the earth’s crust are called igneous rocks. The word igneous derived from the Latin word  Ignace which means fire. These rocks are associated with volcanic eruptions. Igneous rock forms 15% of the earth’s land and most …

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Sedimentary rocks

Sedimentary rock is formed by compaction and lithification of weathered material of existing rocks. Sedimentary rocks are formed on or near the Earth’s surface, while metamorphic and igneous rocks are formed deep within the Earth. Erosion, weathering, dissolution, precipitation, and lithification is the most important process of making sedimentary rocks. Erosion and weathering have the …

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Rocks

A rock is a substance that occurs naturally and composed of grains of minerals and mineraloid matter. Grains of minerals are crystalline solids  which form chemical compounds  arranged in an orderly manner. Rock is categorized by chemical composition and how it’s formed. Most rocks contain silicate minerals and account for about one-third of all known …

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What is a Volcanic Eruption?

Introduction The geologic architects of the earth mainly made from volcanoes. more than 80 percent of our earth’s surface created from volcanoes.  some 1500 volcanoes are active around the world. 161 of those-which are 10 percent-within the United States boundary. volcanoes on every continent, even Antarctica. How do volcanoes forms? majority of volcanoes form along …

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