Branches of Geology

Introduction

Geology is a very wide field that can be divided into many more specific categories. geology has many branches. Traditionally, geology has been divided into two main subdivisions: physical geology and historical geology. Although many people think the field of geology focuses solely on rocks, there is much more behind this scientific field Geology has many divisions and their subdivisions

Branches of Geology

Physical Geology

physical geology dealings with the Earth’s structure, age and , composition, weathering, and mass-wasting.it concerned with exogenous processes(geological processes which are active on earth) and endogenous processes (plate tectonics and mountain‐building ) and the process that brings about changes on the earth’s surface

Historical Geology

historical geology concerned with the record of past events, sequence of earth , the evolution of plants and animals of past ages in chronological order. historical geology sometimes called stratigraphical geology

Geomorphology

Geomorphology is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of landforms and landscapes produced by physical, chemical or biological processes running at Earth’s surface

Geocryology

geocryology is a study of the processes and phenomena that happen in freezing, frozen, and thawing soils, ground, and rock. it also studies changes in their composition, properties, and structure.

Paleontology or Palaeontology

Paleontology (US spelling) or palaeontology (UK spelling) is the scientific study of fossil which are evidence of past life preserved in rock .

it also study of tracks, burrows, cast off parts, fossilized faeces (“coprolites”), and chemical residues. body fossil and trace fossils are main evidence for study of past life.

Mineralogy

Mineralogy is the branch of geology which deal with the study of the minerals. it is also scientific study of chemistry, physical structure and crystal structure of mineral.

Petrology

petrology is the detail study of rocks, their composition, texture ,their occurrence , origin and process of formation.it is related all major types of rock igneous metamorphic and sedimentary rock. detail study of rocks to understand the origin by analysis of minerals by optical mineralogy in thin section and micro-texture and structure.

Economic Geology

Economic geology is deals with the earth’s materials used for economic and/or industrial purposes. such as precious stones and base metals, nonmetallic minerals, construction-grade stones, petroleum minerals, coal, and water.

Petroleum geology

Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.

Stratigraphy

stratigraphy is the study of rock successions and the correlation of geological events and processes in time and space”. Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).

Geophysics

Geophysics is a major subject of natural science. It is concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis. The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth’s shape; its gravitational and magnetic fields; its internal structure and composition; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, Geophysics is applied to societal needs, such as mineral resources, mitigation of natural hazards and environmental protection. Geophysical survey data are used to analyze potential petroleum reservoirs and mineral deposits, locate groundwater, find archaeological relics, determine the thickness of glaciers and soils, and assess sites for environmental remediation.

Hydrogeology /Geohydrology

Hydrogeology is the study of the distribution and movement of water in aquifers and shallow porous layers of rock, sand, silt, and gravel

Oceanography

Oceanography is a science concerned with the Physico-chemical properties of oceanic water, its depth, temperature, salinity, movements like tides, waves and currents, flora, and fauna found at various zones of seas and oceans.

Sedimentology

Sedimentology is the scientific study of sedimentary rocks and the processes by which they were formed.

Mining Geology

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposits.

Engineering Geology

Engineering geology is the branch of the geology to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for. Engineering geologists provide geological and geotechnical recommendations, analysis, and design associated with human development and various types of structures. The realm of the engineering geologist is essentially in the area of earth-structure interactions, or investigation of how the earth or earth processes impact human-made structures and human activities.

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