Bowen’s Reaction Series

In the early 1900’s, N. L. Bowen and others at the Geophysical Laboratories in Washington D.C. began experimental studies into the order ofcrystallization of the common silicate minerals from a magma. The idealized progression which they determined is still accepted as the general model forthe evolution of magmas during the cooling process. The Principles that …

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What is Gabbro?

Gabbro is a coarse-grained, dark-colored, intrusive igneous rock. It is usually black or dark green in color and composed mainly of the minerals plagioclase and augite. It is the most abundant rock in the deep oceanic crust. Gabbro has a variety of uses in the construction industry. It is used for everything from crushed stone …

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Image Processing – Correction

Radiometric Correction As any image involves radiometric errors as well as geometric errors, these errors should be corrected. Radiometric correction is to avoid radiometric errors or distortions, while geometric correction is to remove geometric distortion. When the emitted or reflected electro-magnetic energy is observed by a sensor on board an aircraft or spacecraft, the observed energy does …

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What is Basalt Rock?

Basalt is a dark-colored, fine-grained, igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase and pyroxene minerals. It most commonly forms as an extrusive rock, such as a lava flow, but can also form in small intrusive bodies, such as an igneous dike or a thin sill. It has a composition similar to gabbro. The difference between basalt …

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What is Geology?

“Geology” is a Greek word “geo” means earth and “logos” means science. Geology is the scientific study of the Earth, the materials (which it is made), the structure of those materials, and the process following upon them. The importance of geology is the investigation of how Earth’s materials, structures, process, and life forms have changed over time. …

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How to write a Thesis Proposal?

Overview You are working through your course requirements and the actual thesis work is looming. Where do you start? The essential requirements for a thesis (formal departmental policy) are: The basic steps involved in this process are: The Proposal The first step toward a great thesis is a great thesis proposal. You should meet with …

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Main Topics of Geology

Origin, composition, and internal structure of the earth  Process of the formation of the solar system. Accumulation, heating, and differentiation of the earth. Composition and characteristics of the core, mantle, and crust. Seismic wave characteristics of the core, mantle, and crust. Geological time, relative dating and radiometric dating Age of the earth. Rates of geological processes. …

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Kalabagh fault

The 120-km-long Kalabagh fault zone is formed by transpressive right-lateral strike-slip along the western Salt Range-Potwar Plateau in northern Pakistan. kalabagh fault between mianwali and kalabagh. it truncates at the western margin of salt range thrustJhelum fault and kalabagh fault are the geological boundaries of salt rangwe see continuity of salt range  along the kalabagh …

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Branches of Geology

Introduction Geology is a very wide field that can be divided into many more specific categories. geology has many branches. Traditionally, geology has been divided into two main subdivisions: physical geology and historical geology. Although many people think the field of geology focuses solely on rocks, there is much more behind this scientific field Geology …

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